Incentives and Sanctions
Behavior Modification 101 for (State) Drug Courts: Making the Most of Incentives and Sanctions, Douglas B. Marlowe, J.D., Ph.D., NDCI Drug Court Practitioner Fact Sheet (2012).
Scientific research over several decades has revealed the most effective ways to administer behavior modification programs. This brief factsheet overviews the basic lessons learned, including the effectiveness of both the carrot and the stick; the need to both trust and verify; issuing sanctions and incentives immediately; ensuring the proper proportions of sanctions and incentives; using available resources; ensuring due process protection; changing the treatment plan; distinguishing between proximal and distal behaviors; and phase advancement.
Sanctions and Incentives: A Review of What Works and Why, Judge Jamey Hueston, Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court (2011).
Various scientific research supports the use of contingency management strategies of rewards to encourage positive behavior and sanctions when necessary reform behavior of drug abusers. The challenge facing drug courts is to improve the offender's attitude, actions and social functioning. This article discusses the critical factors and scientific support, which influence the use of sanctions and incentives and provide guidelines for their application.
The Drug Court Judicial Benchbook, Chapter 7: Applying Incentives and Sanctions, National Drug Court Institute (Douglas B. Marlowe and Hon. William G. Meyer, eds., 2011)
Chapter 7 – Applying Incentives and Sanctions
II. Reliable Monitoring
III. Unearned Leniency
IV. Schedule of Status Hearings
V. Magnitude of Rewards and Sanctions
VI. The Fishbowl Procedure
IX. Proximal vs. Distal Goals
X. Phase Advancement
XI. Substance Abuse vs. Dependence
XII. Noncompliance vs. Nonresponsiveness
XIII. The Carrot vs. The Stick
See the NDCJ Judicial Benchbook in its entirety here.
Samples from Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts
Cass County-Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Wellness Court Sanctions, Cass County-Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Wellness Court,
This sanction schedule provide the participant notice of the consequences that will attach to noncompliant behavior. The noncompliant behavior is listed along with the corresponding sanction.
Quinault Sanction and Termination Point System, Page 15 of the Quinault Wellness Court Policies and Procedures
Quinault utilized a point system for issuing sanctions and provides a detailed breakdown of how many points different types of infractions will cost the participant. The manual also notes that the Judge retains discretion over the points. There is a list of what typical incentives might be as well as what typical sanctions might be.
PowerPoint: "Shaping Behavior: Sanctions and Incentives," presented by Charlene Jackson and Donna Humetewa at the Sept. 2013 Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Enhancement Training.
This Power Point explores the recent research available on behavior modification strategies, ideas for the creative use of limited resources, and typical modes that have been successful utilized by Tribal Healing to Wellness Court.
PowerPoint: "Practical Guide to Incentives and Sanctions," Douglas D. Marlowe, J.D., Ph. D. and Carolyn Hardin, MPA (May 10, 2011)
Power Point: "Effective Use of Rewards and Sanctions," presented by Douglas B. Marlowe, J.D., Ph.D. (March 8, 2011)
Includes discussion of "proximal" and "distal" behaviors.
Lists of Incentives and Sanctions, National Association of Drug Court Professionals and Nation Drug Court Institute
These lists were collected from hundreds of drug courts around the country, and is intended to encourage drug courts to think more broadly and creatively about the types of responses they might provide in their own programs.
NADCP - List of Sanctions and Incentives (2009).
This list provides another example of typical sanctions and incentives that can be used and/or adapted for your own program.
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